Tan, H., Xu, J. & Wong-Parodi, G. The politics of Asian fracking: public risk perceptions towards shale gas development in China. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 54, 46–55 (2019).
Mayer, A. Risk and benefits in a fracking boom: Evidence from Colorado. Extr. Ind. Soc. 3, 744–753 (2016).
Aczel, M. R. & Makuch, K. E. The lay of the land: the public, participation and policy in China’s fracking frenzy. Extr. Ind. Soc. 5, 508–514 (2018).
Connor, C. D. O. & Fredericks, K. Citizen perceptions of fracking: the risks and opportunities of natural gas development in Canada. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 42, 61–69 (2018).
Davies, R. J. et al. Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation. Mar. Pet. Geol. 56, 239–254 (2014).
Jackson, R. B. et al. The environmental costs and benefits of fracking. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 39, 327–362 (2014).
Brantley, S. L. et al. Engaging over data on fracking and water quality: Data alone aren’t the solution, but they bring people together. Science 359, 395–397 (2018).
Vengosh, A., Jackson, R. B., Warner, N., Darrah, T. H. & Kondash, A. A critical review of the risks to water resources from unconventional shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 8334–8348 (2014).
Kondash, A. J., Lauer, N. E. & Vengosh, A. The intensification of the water footprint of hydraulic fracturing. Sci. Adv. 4, eaar5982 (2018).
Rosa, A. L., Rulli, M. C., Davis, K. F. & Odorico, P. D. The water-energy nexus of hydraulic fracturing: a global hydrologic analysis for shale oil and gas extraction. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1002/2018EF000809 (2018).
Callies, D. L. & Stone, C. Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing. J. Int. Comp. Law 1, 1–38 (2014).
Esterhuyse, S., Vermeulen, D. & Glazewski, J. Regulations to protect groundwater resources during unconventional oil and gas extraction using fracking. Wires Water 6, e1382 (2019).
Bohlmann, H. R., Horridge, J. M., Inglesi-Lotz, R., Roos, E. L. & Stander, L. Regional economic effects of changes in South Africa’s electricity generation mix. Economic Research Southern Africa (ERSA). ERSA working paper 756, 1–20. (2018).
Nkosi, N. P. & Dikgang, J. Pricing electricity blackouts among South African households. J. Commod. Mark. 11, 37–47 (2018).
IPCC. Summary for Policymakers: Climate Change 2021 The Physical Science Basis. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1/downloads/report/IPCC_AR6_WGI_Full_Report_smaller.pdf (2021).
IRENA. Global Energy Transformation: A roadmap to 2050. https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2018/Apr/IRENA_Report_GET_2018.pdf (2018).
EC. Energy roadmap 2050. https://doi.org/10.2833/10759 (2012).
Olivier, D. W., Xu, Y. & Olivier, D. W. Making effective use of groundwater to avoid another water supply crisis in Cape Town, South Africa. Hydrogeol. J. 27, 823–826 (2019).
Hobbs, P. et al. Chapter 5 – Water Resources. In Shale Gas Development in the Central Karoo: A Scientific Assessment of the Opportunities and Risks. (eds. Scholes, R., Lochner, P., Schreiner, G., Snyman-Van der Walt, L. & de Jager, M.) 97–111 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-799954-8.00005-8 (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 2016).
McGranahan, D. A., Kirkman, K. P. & McGranahan, D. A. Local perceptions of hydraulic fracturing ahead of exploratory drilling in eastern South Africa. Environ. Manag. 63, 338–351 (2019).
Finkeldey, J. Unconventionally contentious: Frack Free South Africa’s challenge to the oil and gas industry. Extr. Ind. Soc. 5, 461–468 (2018).
Atkinson, D. Fracking in a fractured environment: Shale gas mining and institutional dynamics in South Africa’s young democracy. Extr. Ind. Soc. 5, 441–452 (2018).
Schreiner, G. et al. Evidence-based and participatory processes in support of shale gas policy development in South Africa. In Governing Shale Gas: Development, Citizen Participation and Decision Making in the US, Canada, Australia and Europe (eds. Whitton, J., Cotton, M., Charnley-Parry, I. & Brasier, K.) 149–167 (Routledge, 2018).
Republic of South Africa. Supreme court of appeal judgment—Minister of Mineral Resources v Stern and Others; Treasure the Karoo Action Group and Another v Department of Mineral Resources and Others (1369/2017; 790/2018)  ZASCA 99;  3 All SA 684 (SCA) (4 July 2019). (2019).
Gorski, J. & Trenorden, C. The EU and regulation of the shale industry: where do we stand now? Oil gas. law N. 5, 20–25 (2017).
Gorski, J. & Trenorden, C. Maximizing the EU shale gas potential by minimizing its environmental footprint. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3070722 (2018).
Williamson, R. & Esterhuyse, S. Expected wastewater volumes associated with unconventional oil and gas exploitation in South Africa and the management thereof. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 79, 711–728 (2020).
Webb, R. M. Changing Tides in Water Management: Policy Options to Encourage Greater Recycling of Fracking Wastewater. William Mary Environ. Law Policy Rev. 42, 85–143 (2017).
Brady, W. J. & Crannell, J. P. Hydraulic Fracturing Regulation in the United States: The Laissez-Faire Approach of the Federal Government and Varying State Regulations. Vt. J. Environ. Law 14, 40–68 (2015).
Tan, P.-L., George, D. & Comino, M. Cumulative risk management, coal seam gas, sustainable water, and agriculture in Australia. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. 31, 682–700 (2015).
Esterhuyse, S. Developing a groundwater vulnerability map for unconventional oil and gas extraction: a case study from South Africa. Environ. Earth Sci. 76, 626 (2017).
Esterhuyse, S. et al. Development of an interactive vulnerability map and monitoring framework to assess the potential environmental impact of unconventional oil and gas extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. (Water Research Commission, 2014).
Buono, R. M., Mayor, B. & López-Gunn, E. A comparative study of water-related issues in the context of hydraulic fracturing in Texas and Spain. Environ. Sci. Policy 0–1 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2017.12.006 (2017).
Fink, E. Dirty little secrets: fracking fluids, dubious trade secrets, confidential contamination, and the public health information vacuum. Fordham Intellect. Prop. Media Entertain. Law J. 29, 971–1023 (2019).
Becklumb, P., Chong, J. & Williams, T. Shale Gas in Canada: Environmental Risks and Regulation. https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-18-e.pdf (2015).
Ingelson, A. & Hunter, T. A Regulatory Comparison of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Disclosure Regimes in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Nat. Resour. J. 54, 217–253 (2014).
EPA. Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts from the Hydraulic Fracturing. EPA’s Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Its Potential Impact on Drinking Water Resources (2016).
National Acadamies Press. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. https://doi.org/10.17226/25083 (2018).
Centre for Environmental Rights. Minimum requirements for the regulation of the environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing—A position statement. https://cer.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/CER-Minimum-Requirements-for-the-Regulation-of-the-Environmental-Impacts-of-Fracking-Web.pdf (2014).
Jackson, R. B. The integrity of oil and gas wells. PNAS 10–11 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1410786111 (2014).
Esterhuyse, S., Kemp, M. & Redelinghuys, N. Assessing the existing knowledge base and opinions of decision makers on the regulation and monitoring of unconventional gas mining in South Africa. Water Int. 38, 687–700 (2013).
Lin, A. China: Replacing coal with shale gas. Could reducing China’s regional air pollution lead to more local pollution in rural China? In The Shale Dilemma: A Global Perspective on Fracking and Shale Development (ed. Gamper-Rabindran, S.) 267–304 (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2018).
Guo, M. et al. Prospects for shale gas production in China: Implications for water demand. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 66, 742–750 (2016).
Thomas, M., Partridge, T., Harthorn, B. H. & Pidgeon, N. Deliberating the perceived risks, benefits, and societal implications of shale gas and oil extraction by hydraulic fracturing in the US and UK. Nat. Energy 2, 17054 (2017).
Kinne, B. Regulating unconventional shale gas in the United States: Diverging priorities, overlapping jurisdictions, and asymmetrical data access. In Governing shale gas: Development, citizen participation and decision-making in the US, Canada, Australia and Europe (eds. Whitton, J., Cotton, M., Charnley-Parry, I. M. & Brasier, K.) 23–36 (Routledge, 2018).
Mcintosh, J. et al. A critical review of state-of-the-art and emerging approaches to identify fracking-derived gases and associated contaminants in aquifers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 53, 1063–1077 (2019).
Worrall, F., Davies, J. & Hart, A. Dynamic baselines for the detection of water quality impacts – the case of shale gas development. Environ. Sci. Process. impacts Qual. impacts 23, 1116–1129 (2021).
King, R. We Need a Fracking Baseline. La. Law Rev. 77, 545–584 (2016).
Daily, T. A. Rules Done Right: How Arkansas Brought Its Oil and Gas Law into a Horizontal World. Ark. Law Rev. 68, 259–294 (2015).
Brownlow, J., Yelderman, J. C. & James, S. C. Spatial Risk Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing near Abandoned and Converted Oil and Gas wells. Groundwater 55, 268–280 (2017).
Cobbing, J. E., Eales, K., Gibson, J., Lenkoe, K. & Cobbing, B. Operation and maintenance (O&M) and the perceived unreliability of domestic groundwater supplies in South Africa. South Afr. J. Geol. 118, 17–32 (2015).
Gaye, C. B. & Tindimugaya, C. Review: challenges and opportunities for sustainable groundwater management in Africa. Hydrogeol. J. 27, 1099–1110 (2019).
Department of Water and Sanitation. National groundwater strategy draft. (Department of Water and Sanitation, 2016).
Hohne, D., de Lange, F., Esterhuyse, S. & Sherwood-Lollar, B. Case study: methane gas in a groundwater system located in a dolerite ring structure in the Karoo Basin; South Africa. South Afr. J. Geol. 122, 357–368 (2019).
Eymold, W. K. et al. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study. Groundwater 56, 1–21 (2018).
Cramer, B. What the frack? How weak industrial disclosure rules prevent public understanding of chemical practices and toxic politics. South. Calif. Interdiscip. Law J. 25, 67–105 (2016).
Centner, T. J. & Eberhart, N. S. The use of best management practices to respond to externalities from developing shale gas resources. J. Environ. Plan. Manag. 59, 746–768 (2016).
Kinchy, A. & Schaffer, G. Disclosure Conflicts: Crude Oil Trains, Fracking Chemicals, and the Politics of Transparency. Sci. Technol. Hum. values 43, 1011–1038 (2018).
Weible, C. M. et al. An Institutional and Opinion Analysis of Colorado’s Hydraulic Fracturing Disclosure Policy. J. Environ. Policy Plan. 19, 115–134 (2017).
Rawlins, R. Planning for Fracking on the Barnett Shale: Soul and Water Contamination Concerns, and the Role of Local Government. Envtl. L 44, 135–199 (2014).
Holding, S., Allen, D. M., Notte, C. & Olewiler, N. Enhancing water security in a rapidly developing shale gas region. J. Hydrol. Reg. Stud. 11, 266–277 (2017).
Schreurs, M. A. Germany: The German Energiewende and the decision to ban unconventional hydraulic fracturing. In The shale dilemma: A global perspective on fracking and shale development (ed. Gamper-Rabindran, S.) 231–266 (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2018).
Farah, P. D. & Tremolada, R. A Comparison between Shale Gas in China and Unconventional Fuel Development in the United States: Health, Water and Environmental Risks. Brooklyn J. Int. Law 41, 1–46 (2016).
Notte, C., Allen, D. M., Gehman, J., Alessi, D. S. & Goss, G. G. Comparative analysis of hydraulic fracturing wastewater practices in unconventional shale developments: Regulatory regimes. Can. Water Resour. J. 42, 122–137 (2017).
Wiseman, H. J. State Enforcement of Shale Gas Development Regulations, Including Hydraulic Fracturing. Ssrn https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1992064 (2012).
Eaton, T. T. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply. Sci. Total Environ. 461–462, 158–169 (2013).
Gagnon, G. A. et al. Impacts of hydraulic fracturing on water quality: a review of literature, regulatory frameworks and an analysis of information gaps. Environ. Rev. 24, 122–131 (2016).
Centner, T. J. & Connell, L. K. O. Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States. Sci. Total Environ. 476, 359–367 (2014).
Lenhard, L. G., Andersen, S. M. & Coimbra-Araújo, C. H. Energy-Environmental Implications Of Shale Gas Exploration In Paraná Hydrological Basin, Brazil. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 90, 56–69 (2018).
Saulino, M. F. Argentina: Energy extraction in communities. Can shale development proceed without causing pollution and conflicts? In The shale dilemma: A global perspective on fracking and shale development (ed. Gamper-Rabindran, S.) 305–341 (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2018).
Wiseman, H. J. The Capacity of States to Govern Shale Gas Development Risks. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 8376–8387 (2014).
Hull, E. & Evensen, D. Just environmental governance for shale gas? Transitioning towards sustainable local regulation of fracking in Spain. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 59, 101307 (2020).
DiGiulio, D. C., Shonkoff, S. B. C. & Jackson, R. B. The need to protect fresh and brackish groundwater resources during unconventional oil and gas development. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sci. Heal. 3, 1–7 (2018).
Angeles, A. Reforming Natural Gas Fracking Regulations in 2017–2018: How Should States Enforce Regulations? Environ. Claims J. 30, 251–272 (2018).
Mukherjee, N. et al. Comparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision-making. Methods Ecol. Evol. 9, 54–63 (2018).
Baker, E., Bosetti, V., Jenni, K. E. & Ricci, E. C. Facing the experts: Survey mode and expert elicitation. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2384487 (2014).
Redelinghuys, N. Effects on communities: The social frabric, local livelihoods and the social psyche. In Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo: Critical Legal and Environmental Perspectives (eds. Glazewski, J. & Esterhuyse, S.) 345–365 (JUTA, 2016).
Young, J. C. et al. A methodological guide to using and reporting on interviews in conservation science research. Methods Ecol. Evol. 9, 10–19 (2018).
Morgan, M. G. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy. PNAS 111, 7177–7184 (2014).
DWA (Department of Water Affairs). Groundwater strategy 2010. (DWA (Department of Water Affairs), 2010).
Source: Resources - nature.com