Conserving Africa’s wildlife and wildlands through the COVID-19 crisis and beyond

  • 1.

    COVID-19 Dashboard (JHU CSSE, 2020);

  • 2.

    Ferguson, N., Laydon, D., Nedjati-Gilani, G. & Imai, N. Impact of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (Npis) to Reduce COVID-19 Mortality and Healthcare Demand (Imperial College London, 2020);

  • 3.

    Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on the African Economy (African Union, 2020);

  • 4.

    Jayaram, B. K., Leke, A., Ooko-ombaka, A. & Sun, Y. S. Tackling COVID-19 in Africa: An Unfolding Health and Economic Crisis that Demands Bold Action (McKinsey & Company, 2020).

  • 5.

    Wolf, C. & Ripple, W. J. Prey depletion as a threat to the world’s large carnivores. R. Soc. Open Sci. 3, 160252 (2016).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 6.

    Ripple, W. J. et al. Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores. Sci. Adv. 1, e1400103 (2015).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 7.

    The Economic Impact of Global Wildlife Tourism – Travel and Tourism As An Economic Tool For The Protection Of Wildlife (World Travel and Tourism Council, 2019).

  • 8.

    Lindsey, P. A., Roulet, P. A. & Romañach, S. S. Economic and conservation significance of the trophy hunting industry in sub-Saharan Africa. Biol. Conserv. 134, 455–469 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  • 9.

    di Minin, E., Leader-Williams, N. & Bradshaw, C. J. A. Banning trophy hunting will exacerbate biodiversity loss. Trends Ecol. Evol. 31, 99–102 (2016).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 10.

    Building a Wildlife Economy (Space for Giants, UNEP & Conservation Capital, 2019);

  • 11.

    Lindsey, P. A. et al. More than $1 billion needed annually to secure Africa’s protected areas with lions. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 115, E10788–E10796 (2018).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 12.

    Galvani, A. P., Bauch, C. T., Anand, M., Singer, B. H. & Levin, S. A. Human-environment interactions in population and ecosystem health. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 14502–14506 (2016).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 13.

    Stolton, S. & Dudley, N. The New Lion Economy: Unlocking the Value of Lions (Equilibrium Research, 2019);

  • 14.

    Macdonald, E. A. et al. Conservation inequality and the charismatic cat: Felis felicis. Glob. Ecol. Conserv. 3, 851–866 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  • 15.

    The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) (UNEP-WCMC & IUCN, 2019);

  • 16.

    Lindsey, P. A., Balme, G. A., Funston, P. J., Henschel, P. H. & Hunter, L. T. B. Life after Cecil: channelling global outrage into funding for conservation in Africa. Conserv. Lett. 9, 296–301 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  • 17.

    Baghai, M. et al. Models for the collaborative management of Africa’s protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 218, 73–82 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  • 18.

    Mills, M. et al. How conservation initiatives go to scale. Nat. Sustain. 2, 935–940 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  • 19.

    Taylor, W. A., Lindsey, P. A., Nicholson, S. K., Relton, C. & Davies-Mostert, H. T. Jobs, game meat and profits: the benefits of wildlife ranching on marginal lands in South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 245, 108561 (2020).

    Google Scholar 

  • 20.

    Western, D., Russell, S. & Cuthill, I. The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya. PLoS ONE 4, e6140 (2009).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 21.

    Riggio, J., Jacobson, A. P., Hijmans, R. J. & Caro, T. How effective are the protected areas of East Africa? Glob. Ecol. Conserv. 17, e00573 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  • 22.

    Western, D. et al. Conservation from the inside‐out: winning space and a place for wildlife in working landscapes. People Nat. 2, 279–291 (2020).

    Google Scholar 

  • 23.

    The State of Community Conservation in Namibia (NACSO, 2018);

  • 24.

    Pringle, R. M. Upgrading protected areas to conserve wild biodiversity. Nature 546, 91–99 (2017).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 25.

    Strindberg, S. et al. Guns, germs, and trees determine density and distribution of gorillas and chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa. Sci. Adv. 4, eaar2964 (2018).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 26.

    Lindsey, P. A. et al. Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia. PLoS ONE 9, e94109 (2014).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 27.

    Ogutu, J. O. et al. Extreme wildlife declines and concurrent increase in livestock numbers in Kenya: what are the causes? PLoS ONE 11, e0163249 (2016).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 28.

    Craigie, I. D. et al. Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 143, 2221–2228 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  • 29.

    Maisels, F. et al. Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa. PLoS ONE 8, e59469 (2013).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 30.

    Robson, A. S. et al. Savanna elephant numbers are only a quarter of their expected values. PLoS ONE 12, e0175942 (2017).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 31.

    Dirzo, R. et al. Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science 345, 401–406 (2014).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 32.

    Hempson, G. P., Archibald, S. & Bond, W. J. The consequences of replacing wildlife with livestock in Africa. Sci. Rep. 7, 17196 (2017).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 33.

    Airborne Nitrogen Dioxide Plummets over China (NASA Earth Observatory, 2020);

  • 34.

    Gabon Bans Eating of Pangolin and Bats amid Pandemic (AFP, 2020).

  • 35.

    Spenceley, A. COVID-19 and Protected Area Tourism: A Spotlight on Impacts and Options in Africa (World Trade Organization, 2020).

  • 36.

    Hockings, M. et al. Editorial essay: COVID‐19 and protected and conserved areas. Parks 26, 7–24 (2020).

    Google Scholar 

  • 37.

    Spenceley, A., Snyman, S. & Eagle, P. F. J. Guidelines for Tourism Partnerships and Concessions for Protected Areas: Generating Sustainable Revenues for Conservation and Development (IUCN, 2017);

  • 38.

    Reich, R. & Wimer, C. Charitable Giving and the Great Recession. Recession Trends (Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, 2012).

  • 39.

    Martin, M. Managing Philanthropy after the Downturn: What is Ahead for Social Investment? 10–21 (Viewpoint, 2010).

  • 40.

    te Velde, D. W. & Massa, I. Donor Responses to the Global Financial Crisis – A Stock Take Global Financial Crisis Discussion Series (Overseas Development Institute, 2009).

  • 41.

    Daszak, P., Cunningham, A. A. & Hyatt, A. D. Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Tropica 78, 1–14 (2001).

    Google Scholar 

  • 42.

    Markotter, W., Coertse, J., de Vries, L., Geldenhuys, M. & Mortlock, M. Bat-borne viruses in Africa: a critical review. J. Zool. 311, 77–98 (2020).

    Google Scholar 

  • 43.

    Olival, K. J. et al. Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals. Nature 546, 646–650 (2017).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 44.

    Di Marco, M. et al. Sustainable development must account for pandemic risk. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 3888–3892 (2020).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 45.

    Johnson, C. K. et al. Global shifts in mammalian population trends reveal key predictors of virus spillover risk. Proc. R. Soc. B 287, 20192736 (2020).

    Google Scholar 

  • 46.

    Jones, K. E. et al. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451, 990–993 (2008).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 47.

    Broad, S. Wildlife Trade, COVID-19, and Zoonotic Disease Risks (TRAFFIC, 2020).

  • 48.

    Karesh, W. B. et al. Ecology of zoonoses: natural and unnatural histories. Lancet 380, 1936–1945 (2012).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 49.

    Edwards, D. P. et al. Mining and the African environment. Conserv. Lett. 7, 302–311 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  • 50.

    Kleinschroth, F., Healey, J. R., Gourlet-Fleury, S., Mortier, F. & Stoica, R. S. Effects of logging on roadless space in intact forest landscapes of the Congo Basin. Conserv. Biol. 31, 469–480 (2017).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 51.

    Castro, M. C. et al. Development, environmental degradation, and disease spread in the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS Biol. 17, e3000526 (2019).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 52.

    Green, J. M. H. et al. Local costs of conservation exceed those borne by the global majority. Glob. Ecol. Conserv. 14, e00385 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  • 53.

    Zahia, B. et al. Voices of the communities: a new deal for rural communities and wildlife and natural resources. in Africa’s Wildlife Economy Summit 1–13 (UNEP, 2019).

  • 54.

    Heyl, A. Herding for Health (Univ. Pretoria, 2017).

  • 55.

    Closing the gap. The financing and resourcing of protected and conserved areas in Eastern and Southern Africa. Jane’s Defence Weekly (IUCN ESARO, 2020).

  • 56.

    Naidoo, R., Fisher, B., Manica, A. & Balmford, A. Estimating economic losses to tourism in Africa from the illegal killing of elephants. Nat. Commun. 7, 13379 (2016).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 57.

    The Bio-economy Strategy (Department of Science and Technology, 2013);

  • 58.

    Economic Crisis, International Tourism Decline and its Impact on the Poor (World Tourism Organization & International Labour Organization, 2013);

  • 59.

    Dickman, A., Cooney, R., Johnson, P. J., Louis, M. P. & Roe, D. Trophy hunting bans imperil biodiversity. Science 365, 874 (2019).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 60.

    Lindsey, P. A. et al. Benefits of wildlife-based land uses on private lands in Namibia and limitations affecting their development. Oryx 47, 41–53 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  • 61.

    Keesing, F. et al. Consequences of integrating livestock and wildlife in an African savanna. Nat. Sustain. 1, 566–573 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  • 62.

    National Biodiversity Economy Strategy (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2016);

  • 63.

    The Mitigation Hierarchy (Forest Trends, 2020);

  • 64.

    Dahir, A. L. Gabon will be paid by Norway to preserve its forests. Quartz (23 September 2019).

  • 65.

    Bedelian, C. Conservation and Ecotourism on Privatised Land in the Mara, Kenya: The Case of Conservancy Land Leases LDPI Working Paper 9 (The Land Deal Politics Initiative, 2012).

  • 66.

    Buscher, B. & Fletcher, R. Towards convivial conservation. Conserv. Soc. 17, 283–296 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  • 67.

    Dickman, A. J., Macdonald, E. A. & Macdonald, D. W. A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human-carnivore coexistence. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13937–13944 (2011).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 68.

    Balmford, A. et al. Walk on the wild side: estimating the global magnitude of visits to protected areas. PLoS Biol. 13, e1002074 (2015).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 69.

    Annual Report 2017 (Kenya Wildlife Service, 2017);

  • 70.

    State of Wildlife Conservancies in Kenya (KWCA, 2016).

  • 71.

    Tumusiime, D. M. & Vedeld, P. False promise or false premise? Using tourism revenue sharing to promote conservation and poverty reduction in Uganda. Conserv. Soc. 10, 15–28 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  • 72.

    Annual Performance Plan 2018/2019 (South African National Parks, 2018);

  • 73.

    Naidoo, R. et al. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia. Conserv. Biol. 30, 628–638 (2016).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 74.

    Analysis of International Funding to Tackle Illegal Wildlife Trade. Analysis of International Funding to Tackle Illegal Wildlife Trade (World Bank Group, 2016);

  • 75.

    2018 Annual Report on Conservation and Science (Association of Zoos and Aquariums, 2018);

  • 76.

    The Northern Rangeland Trust State of Conservancies Report 2018 (NRT, 2018).

  • 77.

    Our Gorongosa – A Park for the People (The Gorongosa Project, 2019);

  • 78.

    Financials (WWF, 2019);

  • 79.

    Consolidated Financial Statements (African Wildlife Foundation, 2019);

  • 80.

    Annual Report – Unlocking the Value of Protected Areas (African Parks, 2018);

  • 81.

    2018 Annual Report (Sheldrick Wildlife Trust, 2018).

  • 82.

    COVID-19 Update: Taking Action in Unprecedented Times (Association of Zoos and Aquariums, 2020).

  • 83.

    Lott, L. et al. Aid for Museums Impacted by Coronavirus (International Council of Museums, 2020).

  • 84.

    Damania, R., Scandizzo, P. L., Mikou, M., Gohil, D. & Said, M. When Good Conservation Becomes Good Economics: Kenya’s Vanishing Herds (The World Bank, 2019).

  • 85.

    Malhi, Y. et al. Climate change and ecosystems: threats, opportunities and solutions. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 375, 20190104 (2020).

    Google Scholar 

  • 86.

    Roberts, C. M., O’Leary, B. C. & Hawkins, J. P. Climate change mitigation and nature conservation both require higher protected area targets. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 375, 20190121 (2020).

    Google Scholar 

  • 87.

    Good, C., Burnham, D. & Macdonald, D. W. A cultural conscience for conservation. Animals 7, 52 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  • 88.

    Munevar, D. A Debt Moratorium for Low Income Economies (Eurodad, 2020);

  • 89.

    Lamble, L. Africa leads calls for debt relief in face of coronavirus crisis. The Guardian (25 March 2020).

  • 90.

    Seychelles Debt Conversion for Marine Conservation and Climate Adaptation (Convergence, 2017).

  • 91.

    Olson, D. M. et al. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. BioScience 51, 933–938 (2001).

    Google Scholar 

  • 92.

    Hansen, M. et al. High-resolution global maps change, 21st-century forest cover. Science 850, 850–854 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  • 93.

    Jenkins, C. N., Pimm, S. L. & Joppa, L. N. Global patterns of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and conservation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, E2603–E2610 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  • 94.

    International Tourism, Number of Arrivals World Development Indicators (The World Bank, 2020);

  • 95.

    GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) World Development Indicators (The World Bank, 2020);

  • 96.

    Barrow, E. & Fabricius, C. Do rural people really benefit from protected areas – rhetoric or reality? Parks 12, 67–79 (2002).

    Google Scholar 

  • 97.

    Dressler, W. et al. From hope to crisis and back again? A critical history of the global CBNRM narrative. Environ. Conserv. 37, 5–15 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  • 98.

    Mease, L. A., Erickson, A. & Hicks, C. Engagement takes a (fishing) village to manage a resource: principles and practice of effective stakeholder engagement. J. Environ. Manag. 212, 248–257 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  • 99.

    Chirindza, J. 23,000 Mozambicans return to the country in the last 24 hours. O País (26 March 2020).

  • 100.

    Guerbois, C. & Fritz, H. Patterns and perceived sustainability of provisioning ecosystem services on the edge of a protected area in times of crisis. Ecosyst. Serv. 28, 196–206 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  • 101.

    Lindsey, P. A. et al. The performance of African protected areas for lions and their prey. Biol. Conserv. 209, 137–149 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  • Source: Ecology -

    Colonization history affects heating rates of invasive cane toads

    $25 million gift launches ambitious new effort tackling poverty and climate change